You must pass this test with score of 70% or above to pass Social Science Seminar

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True and False

1) Primitive people acquired much of their knowledge unconsciously.
2) When a unified theory of the social sciences was developed, social science separated from the natural sciences.
3) Paul Feurabend developed a unified theory of the social sciences.
4) The scientific method is a set of rules about how to establish rules.
5) The seven steps of the scientific method must always follow one another in a rigid sequence.
6) Modern science is based on the assumption that this is an orderly universe, ruled by the law of cause and effect.
7) Economics considers the social organization by means of which people satisfy their wants for scarce goods and services.
8) Controlled experiments are not generally used by social scientists to study problems involving large groups of people.
9) A broad definition of science would include all systematic attempts to expand knowledge by applying the scientific method.
10) C. Wright Mills argued that scientific progression occurs by paradigm shifts.

Multiple Choice

11) Humans first began to live in fixed communities during the
a) Roman Empire
b) Age of Revolutions
c) Age of Agriculture
d) Stone Age

12) Which of the following did not occur during the Age of Agriculture?
a) Fixed communities were established
b) People had more time to devote to activities not related to acquiring food
c) Pottery was invented
d) People became primarily hunters and gatherers

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13) Which of the following is NOT correctly associated with the earliest civilizations?
a) Invention of pottery
b) Domestication of animals
c) Fixed communities
d) Serfdom
e) King-gods

14) The agricultural revolution:
a) Produced a population explosion
b) Fostered disease
c) Improved sanitation
d) Made transportation less available
e) Decreased the number of wars

15) The development of cities in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt was made possible by:
a) Improved methods of cultivation
b) Improved sanitation conditions
c) A decrease in warfare
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

16) The code of Hammurabi was:
a) A system for deciphering ancient languages
b) The earliest religious text
c) An early collection of rules or laws set up in Mesopotamia about 4000 years ago
d) An ancient Babylonian poem written in a secret code

17) Western political organizations have their foundations in the:
a) Roman Empire
b) Greek polis
c) English manor
d) French court

18) The Greek polis was:
a) Originally an agricultural village
b) An independent political unit
c) Always rules by tyrants
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

19) Alexander the Great:
a) Was the son of King Phillip II of Macedonia
b) Conquered Greece, Egypt, most of the Near East and part of India
c) Died at the age of thirty-three
d) All of the above

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20) The Roman state was one in which:
a) The king, or Caesar, was elected
b) The ruler had extraordinary powers
c) The Senate had veto power
d) All of the above

21) Which of the following was NOT true of the Romans?
a) The Roman Empire endured until the fifth century A.D.
b) Romans exercised their power for centuries
c) Roman culture had no lasting impact on Western civilization
d) The Romans incorporated Greek culture into their own

22) In history, the Middle Age most closely followed:
a) The rise of early civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia
b) The fall of the Roman Empire
c) The Industrial Revolution
d) The Renaissance
e) World War I

23) Which did NOT occur during the Early Middle Ages?
a) The Church consolidated its political and military power
b) Serfs worked the land on feudal estates
c) Muslim culture spread across North Africa, Spain and Portugal
d) Martin Luther posted his ninety-five theses

24) The Holy Roman Empire was:
a) A widespread area stretching over most of Europe
b) Was first ruled by Charlemagne
c) Became fragmented after Charlemagne’s death
d) All of the above

25) The Crusades:
a) Slowed the growth of the merchant class
b) Decreased trade
c) Sped up the breakdown of the manorial system
d) Permanently captured Jerusalem
e) Increased the power of the feudal lords

26) Black Death was the name given to:
a) Muslim defenders of Jerusalem
b) European armies of the successful First Crusade
c) Factories during the Industrial Revolution
d) Bubonic plague

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27) During the late Middle Ages:
a) Fighting ranged between the English and the French
b) Forty percent of the European population died
c) Cities grew wealthier
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

28) The Renaissance:
a) Saw a renewal of interest of Mesopotamian knowledge
b) Saw a rebirth of reasoning and critical thinking
c) Began approximately 1700
d) Marked the reestablishment of Church authority

29) The Industrial Revolution:
a) Occurred mainly between 1750 and 1850
b) Greatly increased the output of products
c) Affected work patterns and social relationships
d) All of the above

30) Which nation was not involved in World War I and World War II?
a) Germany
b) Italy
c) Israel
d) The United States

31) Which of the following is not a stage of pre-market development?
a) Primitive
b) Slave
c) Capitalist
d) Feudal

32) “The universe of tools, means and methods through which we interact with our environment” is the definition of:
a) Scarce goods
b) Physical environment
c) Technology
d) Mass production

33) The examples in your text concerning the development of canned goods and refrigeration demonstrate:
a) That these were the most significant inventions of the century
b) The tremendous and far-reaching influence technological progress can have on society
c) The profound influence of the military on society
d) That the progress of technological change is quite predictable

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34) The Industrial Revolution:
a) Began in England
b) Was brought about by a culmination of invention
c) Saw the first extended use of power machines for industrial production
d) All of the above

35) The Industrial Revolution began around:
a) 2,000 BC
b) 1600
c) 1760
d) 1850
e) 1965

36) The factor(s) favoring the development of industrialism in the United States in the early nineteenth century included all except:
a) A rapidly growing domestic market
b) Plentiful raw materials
c) A relative scarcity of labor
d) A proximity to foreign markets

37) One of the greatest American advances in industrial technology during the early nineteenth century was:
a) The discovery of a process for smelting iron
b) The steam powered engine
c) The production of precision machines which allowed for standardization
d) The discovery of oil in western Pennsylvania

38) Interchangeability refers to:
a) The process whereby, during industrialization, rural workers moved to the cities to work in factories
b) The fact that with industrialization, some jobs are lost but new kinds of jobs are created
c) The assembly line process of production
d) The ability to substitute one part for another

39) The introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution:
a) Reduced the total demand for workers with special skill or training
b) Reduced total job opportunities and employment
c) Increased the number of routine activities performed by people
d) Put certain skilled artisans out of work

40) Prior to industrialization, most people were:
a) Skilled craftsmen
b) Hunters and gatherers
c) Farmers
d) Soldiers

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41) Goods that exist in limited quantities and that we can obtain only if we produce them or if we offer something valuable in exchange for them are:
a) Economic goods
b) Interchangeable goods
c) Technological elements
d) Scarce goods

42) The desire for scarce goods, the availability of natural resources to make them, and the availability of suitable technology to transform the natural resources into the desired scarce goods determine the nature of:
a) Ecology
b) The physical environment
c) Economic activities
d) Culture

43) With regard to natural resources, the United States is:
a) Probably better supplied than any other similar area in the world
b) Probably going to soon run out of its most valuable natural resources
c) Currently suffering from a deficiency of key natural resources
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

44) As a good becomes scarcer, which of the following occurs?
a) The good’s price rises
b) People use less of the good
c) Substitutes for that good are sought
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

45) Ecologists today are concerned with all except:
a) Scarcity of some natural resources
b) Pollution
c) Global warming
d) Inner-city gangs

46) The ‘tragedy of the commons’ refers specifically to:
a) The fact that many inner city areas are deteriorating
b) The pervasive littering of parks and recreation areas
c) The polluted condition of the Great Lakes
d) The idea that because the environment as a whole belongs to society, no individual has the incentive to care for it

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47) Global warming is:
a) Thought to be a result of the burning of fossil fuels
b) A result of nuclear power generation
c) A problem which must be dealt with internationally
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

48) Who is known as a leader of the movement to control the rate of technological change?
a) John Hall
b) Henry Ford III
c) Alvin Toffler
d) Jean Piaget

49) Demography is concerned with:
a) The number of people in an area
b) Factors which cause population increase or decrease
c) Distribution of population
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

50) The country with the largest population is:
a) United States
b) Mexico
c) Japan
d) China

51) In 1994, the population of the world was approximately:
a) 2.25 billion
b) 1.10 billion
c) 5.66 billion
d) 10.50 billion
e) 15.25 billion

52) The great increase in world population since 1800 has resulted directly from:
a) The decline of religious influence
b) The decline in the number and severity of wars
c) The improvement of climate
d) The continuing decline of the death rate

53) Which of the following has NOT contributed to the declining world death rate since 1800?
a) Advances in sanitation and medicine
b) The Industrial Revolution
c) Increases of per capita output of food and manufactured goods
d) High birth rates in underdeveloped countries

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54) China’s policy of limiting population growth has:
a) Encouraged migration to the cities
b) Been more successful in rural than in urban areas
c) Increased the desirability of female children
d) Created future social problems for the country

55) An official systematic count of the number of people who live in a given area is called a:
a) Survey
b) Census
c) Statistical map
d) Standard

56) According to Malthus, which of the following were “positive checks” on population growth?
a) War
b) Disease
c) Industrialization
d) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

57) Methods suggested by Malthus as possible checks on population growth included:
a) Post-marital contraception
b) Abortion
c) Legalized sterilization
d) All of the above
e) None of the above

58) The concept that given the level of technological development, a change in population beyond or below a certain number would mean a lower standard of living is:
a) Diminishing returns
b) Optimal population
c) Population eugenics
d) Preventative checks

59) Concerning “optimal population”, most demographers would agree that:
a) There are no problems associated with having a small population
b) The optimal population for a given country can be determined quite precisely
c) Large populations always create problems for a country
d) The U.S. and Western Europe are close to reaching their optimal population levels
e) All of the above

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60) The current world death rate of 9.0 means that:
a) Nine percent of the population dies each year
b) Nine percent of the elderly population dies each year
c) An average of nine people per thousand die each year
d) One of every nine people die each year

61) The birthrate is determined by counting how many people are born:
a) In a given year per thousand of the population
b) Over a ten-year period in each country
c) And subtracting how many people die in a given year per thousand of the population
d) Per thousand married women in a country

62) If, in a given population of 100 people, one person is born in one year’s time, the birth rate would be:
a) 1
b) 5
c) 10
d) Cannot be determined from information given

63) The study of socially acceptable measures for improving the biological quality of the human race is:
a) Evolution
b) Social engineering
c) Eugenics
d) Phonics

64) The U.S. population:
a) Grew much more than did the European population between 1800 and 1994
b) Is not distributed equally
c) Grew most rapidly in the East since the 1950s
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

65) The increase in birthrate and the resulting population growth that occurred during the two decades after World War II is known as:
a) The birth revolution
b) The war conceptions
c) The birth boom
d) The baby boom

66) A family consisting of a husband and wife and their dependent children is called:
a) Polygamous
b) Polygynous
c) Two-parent
d) Extended

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67) The “typical” American family which consists of a father who works, and a mother who stays home with their children makes up about what percentage of all American families?
a) 90%
b) 75%
c) 20%
d) 5%

68) The most widespread form of marriage all over the world is:
a) Cenogamy
b) Polygamy
c) Polygyny
d) Monogamy

69) A form of marriage which consists of one husband and two or more wives is called:
a) Matriarchal
b) Patriarchal
c) Polygamy
d) Polygyny

70) Limits on mate eligibility have included rules against marrying persons of different:
a) Caste
b) Race
c) Kinship group
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

71) In the U.S., the principal type of mate selection is called:
a) Personal-choice mating
b) Arranged marriage
c) Bilateral
d) Equalitarian

72) A form of family control in which the father is called the head of the family is called:
a) Matriarchy
b) Patriarchy
c) Bilateral
d) Unilateral

73) The disadvantage of bilateral descent is:
a) It is unfair to the father
b) It is unfair to the mother
c) It is more complex than unilateral descent
d) It is incompatible with the equalitarian form of family control

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74) In the Western world, descent is determined:
a) Bilaterally
b) Unilaterally
c) Serially
d) Matrilinearly

75) Advantage(s) of the monogamous family grouping includes:
a) It works well for reproduction
b) It provides for psychological adjustment of the individuals
c) It allows for most people to have a mate
d) All of the above

76) AIDS cannot be acquired by:
a) Infected intravenous needles
b) Homosexual relationships
c) Heterosexual relationships
d) AIDS can be acquired through all of the above

77) Since the 1950s the average number of children per family in the U.S. has been:
a) Increasing slowly
b) Increasing rapidly
c) Dropping
d) Unchanged

78) In 1993, the approximate ratio of divorces to marriages was:
a) 1 to 18
b) 1 to 5.8
c) 1 to 4.3
d) 1 to 1.9

79) A form of divorce in which “irreconcilable differences” serve as sufficient grounds is termed:
a) Contract divorce
b) Pre-nuptial agreement
c) No-fault divorce
d) Double-fault divorce

80) Effects of technology on the family include:
a) Woman’s ability to plan her pregnancies
b) Infertile women enabled to have children
c) Microcomputers allowing parents to work at home or have more flexible hours
d) All of the above

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81) Although religions vary greatly, most include:
a) A concept of an afterlife
b) A theory of salvation
c) Belief in God or gods
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

82) Original Buddhism was unique as a religion in that:
a) There was a belief in many gods
b) There was no concept of God
c) It was the first religion to believe in one god
d) All of the above

83) Polytheism refers to a belief in:
a) Magic
b) More than one god
c) Spirits
d) Only one god

84) Hinduism has:
a) No distinct creeds
b) No unique path to find salvation
c) A number and variety of gods
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

85) Most Hindus live in:
a) Japan
b) China
c) India
d) The United States

86) Which of the following religions had a recognized founder?
a) Buddhism
b) Islam
c) Hinduism
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

87) Judaism:
a) Holds that there is a single all-powerful God
b) Rejects the Christian belief that the messiah has already come
c) Looks for the coming of the messiah
d) Was founded by Moses
e) All of the above

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88) Jews are now divided into three major groups:
a) Orthodox, conservative, reformed
b) Orthodox, Zionist, reformed
c) Orthodox, Zionist, traditional
d) Conservative, traditional, reformed

89) The scriptures of the Moslems are contained in a book called the:
a) Torah
b) Koran
c) Five Pillars
d) Bible

90) Mohammed:
a) Was born about 570 A.D. at Banares on the Ganges River
b) Was a wealthy prince
c) Denounced wealth and gave up all his worldly goods
d) Became the business advisor to a rich widow whom he eventually married

91) The Five Pillars of Islam do not include:
a) Giving alms to the needy
b) Performing prescribed rituals of prayer five times a day
c) Giving to the Mosque each year the value of a goat or sheep
d) A pilgrimage to the Kaaba stone at Mecca
e) The fast during Ramadan

92) Christianity:
a) Developed from Judaism
b) Is the principal religion of the Eastern world
c) Was founded by Moses
d) Began to gain power and spread only after the final collapse of the Roman Empire in the West

93) The Protestant Reformation did not lead to:
a) The collapse of the Roman Empire
b) The formation of new religious sects
c) Religious wars and repression of dissident groups
d) Substantial defections from the Roman Church

94) The book The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism was written by:
a) Martin Luther
b) John Milton
c) Max Weber
d) Herodotus

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95) Religion has had an important influence throughout the history on:
a) Education
b) Music
c) Literature
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

96) Which of the following groups did not play a role in the settlement of the English colonies in America?
a) The Roman Catholics
b) The Puritans
c) The Quakers
d) The Mormons

97) Materialistic philosophies maintain that:
a) Only God can make exceptions to the operation of scientific laws
b) Heaven is a place where the elect may enjoy all earthly pleasures
c) Ultimate reality is limited to matter, the energy associated with it, and the movements, variations and combinations of matter and energy
d) God rewards hard work and thrift and is likely to admit into heaven those who practice them

98) People who do not believe in the existence of a deity are:
a) Fundamentalists
b) Agnostics
c) Atheists
d) Deists

99) Which is not considered to be one of today’s five great religions?
a) Shintoism
b) Buddhism
c) Judaism
d) Islam
e) Hinduism

100) All are true of education except:
a) It refers to efforts to learn on the part of those who are objects of teaching
b) It refers to the efforts of society to teach each new generation the beliefs, the way of life, the values, and some portion of knowledge and skills of the group
c) It begins with the socialization of the child and ends in the eighteenth year of life
d) It is a prime agency of social control

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101) The dual thrust of American education refers specifically to:
a) The development of a workable system of education
b) The development of individuality
c) The socialization of students
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘b’ and ‘c’

102) Which of the following is not a fundamental contribution of public education as a building block of American democracy?
a) Enabling the nation to make more effective use of its human resources
b) Reducing inequalities of educational opportunity
c) Teaching children to get along with different kinds of people
d) Teaching the masses to citizens to be literate
e) Teaching citizens specific skills required for public administration

103) Factor(s) that contributed over the years to increased school attendance at the primary and secondary levels include:
a) Better teachers
b) Child labor laws
c) Compulsory school attendance laws
d) None of the above
e) Only ‘b’ and ‘c’

104) Compulsory school attendance laws:
a) Have had relatively little effect on school attendance
b) Actually tended to decrease school attendance
c) Have been enacted by all states
d) All of the above

105) A dual school system:
a) Separates, at an early age, the children who are expected to go to a college or university from those who are not
b) Is characteristic of most European countries
c) Keeps the door to higher education open for most students
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

106) Which of the following countries has a unitary school system?
a) France
b) Japan
c) Great Britain
d) Denmark
e) The United States

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107) The earliest schools designed for providing teacher training to potential educators were called:
a) Normal schools
b) Academies of pedantics
c) Average schools
d) None of the above

108) Education in Japan could be best characterized as:
a) Collaborative
b) Competitive
c) Progressive
d) Unitary

109) The Head Start program works with:
a) Pre-school children
b) Middle and high school students
c) Vocational students
d) College students

110) The progressive education movement in the United States is most usually associated with:
a) Abraham Maslow
b) John Dewey
c) Jimmy Carter
d) William Bennett

111) The introduction of computers to education has:
a) Eliminated the need for many library skills once considered essential
b) Changed the process of writing and revising papers
c) Affected methods of teaching and what needs to be taught
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘b’ and ‘c’

112) The term for private religious, nonsectarian and home schooling is:
a) Parochial school
b) Independent school
c) Non-public school
d) Cooperative education

113) Inequalities in education which exist in the United States are based on:
a) Race
b) Wealth of a region
c) Family income
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘c’

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114) One problem associated with the movement of individuals away from the public school system to private schools is:
a) The loss of tax revenue to the public system
b) The loss of the culturally integrating role of the school system
c) The decline of standards
d) The increase in school congestion

115) Which of the following is not a criteria which has been used to create stratification in societies?
a) Occupation
b) Age
c) Gender
d) Race
e) All of the above have been used as a basis for stratification

116) Social stratification:
a) Has existed only since the Industrial Revolution
b) Is not widespread
c) Always results in dissatisfaction and conflict
d) May contribute to social stability
e) All of the above

117) Social stratification, when very firmly established, contributes to:
a) Social stability
b) The reduction of competitiveness
c) Very evident dissatisfaction and conflict
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’

118) The following type of social stratification is supported largely by religious sanctions:
a) Caste system
b) Estate system
c) Social class system
d) Feudal system

119) In the caste system, movement to a higher caste occurs through:
a) Hard work
b) Transmigration
c) Education
d) Making a good marriage

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120) Which of the following is the best argument against the claim that the social position of blacks in the U.S. was, until recently, like that of a low Hindu caste?
a) Blacks belonged by birth to a socially underprivileged group
b) Until the 1960’s, it was illegal in some states for blacks and whites to intermarry
c) Blacks inferior social position was not based on religious sanctions
d) Until recently, it was very hard to blacks to enter groups predominantly occupied by white

121) The apartheid system in South Africa separated whites and blacks in terms of:
a) Allowable jobs
b) Places where they could live
c) Social relationships
d) All of the above

122) An individual’s socioeconomic status is formed by the combination of all of the following hierarchies except:
a) Education
b) Weight
c) Occupation
d) Income

123) Social classes are:
a) Clear-cut entities
b) Determined precisely by social scientists
c) At least two in number for any given society and rarely more than four
d) Determined by certain criteria such as education, occupation and income

124) In which social stratification system are the lines of division between social groups vague and arbitrary?
a) Caste
b) Estate
c) Feudal
d) Class

125) According to your text, the primary unit of stratification is the:
a) Individual
b) Family
c) Neighborhood
d) Community

126) An open class system is characterized by:
a) A larger lower class
b) Wider status differences
c) Greater social mobility
d) A more open recognition of class differences

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127) In his stories, Horatio Alger suggested that success came primarily from:
a) Hard work
b) Good luck
c) Wealthy parents
d) Education

128) Which of the following is not one of the major sources of income differences?
a) Variations in earnings from personal services
b) Variations in minimum wage levels for various parts of the country
c) Variations in transfer payments from the government
d) Differences in the amount of property owned

129) Workers in which region of the country tend to have the highest incomes?
a) The Northeast and the Southeast
b) The Far West and the Northeast
c) The Southeast
d) The Southwest

130) The functions of the progressive income tax are to:
a) Assure that all citizens pay equal amounts of tax
b) Redistribute income from the rich to the poor
c) Assure that people with high incomes pay higher taxes than people with low incomes
d) All of the above
e) Only ‘b’ and ‘c’

131) Which of the following factors has been found by researchers to be unrelated to upward mobility?
a) Race
b) Sex
c) Being an only child
d) Being left handed
e) The ability to defer gratification

132) The following has contributed little or nothing to social mobility in the United States:
a) Migration and geographic expansion
b) Industrialization
c) Technological progress
d) The size of the baby boom generation
e) An expanded educational system

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133) Which of the following was not a factor which contributed to the lack of class consciousness in America?
a) Considerable social mobility
b) Horizontal mobility
c) General drop in standards of living
d) Lack of a hereditary nobility

134) Who based his economic theory on the belief that increasing exploitation of workers would lead to an increasing class consciousness and eventual revolt by the proletariat against the capitalists?
a) Gerhard Lenski
b) Adam Smith
c) John Locke
d) Karl Marx

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© 1996 by Allyson & Bacon. All rights reserved.








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